Oxidative stress is a pathological state characterized by a cellular submergence by Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) such as free radicals. ROS are naturally produced in small quantities by the cellular metabolism and used in physiological functions such as the cellular differentiation. Antioxidative molecules originate from alimentation or produced by an endogen way constitute a natural detoxification system acting to control the redox homeostasis (Favier, 2003). Glutathione is one of those, a peptid stored in order to detoxify and eliminate ROS (Birben et al., 2012).
Nevertheless, when this system is overtaken, ROS can be toxic and provoke damages on biological molecules (DNA, proteins, lipids, sugars) by oxidizing them. Thus, they can modify the expression of several genes involved in multiple processes and can also cause indirect disturbances through the cytotoxicity and mutagenic potential of the metabolites released, in particular during lipid peroxidation (Birben et al., 2012). All of its alterations can result to cell damages and eventually cell death (Droge, 2002). Moreover, observing that the amount of cellular oxidative damages increased exponentially with aging, oxidative stress was defined as a key player in skin aging (Watson et al., 2014). ROS are indeed known to promote the degradation of the skin extracellular matrix, leading to tissue dysfunction, and appearance of aging signs, such as sagging of the skin (Nelson and Melendez, 2004). On this subject, UVA light is considered as one of the most dangerous oxidative factors (photo-aging) (Watson et al., 2014).
In order to assess if your active can protect skin, HCS Pharma offers you three in vitro antioxidative tests using fluorogenic probes, allowing you to assess ROS production, lipid peroxidation, and glutathione stock. These tests use chemical or physical (UVA) oxidative stress inducers and antioxidant reference compounds as controls.